William the Conqueror’s invasion: violence breeds violence.
Introduction of Longbow Arches at the Battle of Agincourt begins a dangerous arms race.
Expulsion of the Jews from Spain creates fatal precedent.
Martin Luther ends Roman Catholic hegemony.
Spinoza’s publication of Ethics substitutes pantheism for monotheism.
George III bungles American file.
French Reign of Terror gives democracy a bad name.
Nietzsche announces the death of God.
Bismarck’s unification of Germany: first step in road to ruin.
Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee – beginning of the end of the British Empire.