1. On November 11, 1918, the armistice between Germany and the Western powers was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne, ending the First World War. That day was observed as a day of mourning both on the Allied side and in Germany until the Nazis abolished it.
2. The Nazis substituted a day of mourning for the sixteen “blood martyrs” who had participated in Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch in Munich on November 8–9, 1923.
3. November 9, 1938, was Crystal Night, widely considered the beginning of the Holocaust.
4. The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989, ending the Cold War.