Source: The New York Review of Books, May 25
In an essay titled “The Inventor of the Presidency,” Gordon S. Wood writes:
…There were narrow-minded opponents of the new government – “disappointed expectants and malignant designing characters” – Washington called them. These “political mountebanks were trying to undermine the Constitution without giving it a chance.” At the same time, Washington continued, “increasing numbers of newspapers were spreading scurrility & malignant declamation and poisoning public opinion with falsehoods.”
250 years ago this November, forces of the American revolution invaded Quebec to force it to become the fourteenth colony to revolt against the British.
On Sunday, November 12, 1775, the Americans, under the leadership of Major General Richard Montgomery landed on the Island of Montreal. Four delegates were chosen to represent the citizens of Montreal in order to meet with the General. He said he came as a friend in order to bring them independence and true liberty.
No doubt the delegates knew that General George Washington had reasoned the British would pose a threat to American independence and could very easily regain their thirteen colonies by launching attacks from Canada.
Montgomery told the delegates that they had four hours to draw up the terms of capitulation. The document was drawn up and twelve prominent Montreal citizens signed it, one of whom was James McGill (pictured here), founder of McGill University.
The reason the Americans eventually failed was the loyalty to the British of the French top clergy and the seigneurs. The British had given them the right to keep their religion and language in the Quebec Act of 1775, twelve years after their conquest of Canada.
This loyalty was in contrast to the position taken by the habitants and the lower clergy. They sympathized with the American revolutionaries and responded positively to their liberationist propaganda.
Source: The Fourteenth Colony, a series of four, half-hour television plays by Eric Koch and Jack Saywell, carried on the CBC in the early sixties.